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APA Style: APA 7th

APA Manual

APA Writing Applications

DOI Search

A DOI is an alphanumeric code which identifies an article; just like your Social Security Number identifies you.

APA style recommends that the DOI be included in an article citation when available.

Not every article has a DOI. Older articles are more likely to have not been assigned one.

If you are citing an article you obtained in print and you cannot find an existing DOI, you may cite the article without one.

If you are citing an article you obtained electronically, you are expected to make a reasonable effort to find a DOI for the article. (Check the article itself or use the Free DOI Lookup below.) If you cannot find a DOI, then include additional information such as the database name or the URL. (See the DOI and URL Flowchart below.) 

ISU students shouldn't have to buy articles! Check our Catalog, our E-Journal Search, ScienceDirect, and Interlibrary Loan to obtain full-text articles.

APA Style Blog

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PsycINFO News

Introducing the 7th Ed. APA Style Publication Manual

Introducing the 7th Ed. APA Style Publication Manual 

What’s New in APA Style—Inside the Seventh Edition of the Publication Manual of the APA

Top 10 Changes in the APA Style Manual - 6th to 7th edition - APA Central

Top 10 Changes in the APA Style Manual - 6th to 7th edition - APA Central (Hatala Testing) (10:34) Dr. Mark Hatala, Professor of Psychology at Truman State University.

Addtional APA Style Webinars

APA 7th ed. Quick Links

Here are some quick links to important information about writing research papers and properly citing your sources.

Capitalization Rules

BOOK TITLES (which are italicized) use this rule:
The first word, the word following a colon, and any proper nouns are the only items capitalized.
FIRST WORD                       WORD AFTER COLON                     PROPER NOUN
Fathers and early childhood programs: A way to foresee the future of the United States.  
JOURNAL TITLES (which are italicized) use all the regular rules of capitalization, i.e., you don't need to capitalize coordinating conjunctions, articles like "the," or prepositions:
The International Journal of Aging and Human Development
JOURNAL ARTICLE TITLES (which are NOT italicized) follow the same rules as book titles when it comes to capitalization:
FIRST WORD                       WORD AFTER COLON
The transition to retirement:  Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment.

Spelling in APA

"Spelling should conform to standard American English as exemplified in Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2005), the standard spelling reference for APA journals and books..." (APA Manual, 2010, p. 96)

Note that Webster dictionaries are not Merriam-Webster dictionaries.

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Tips for Styles

Follow the style guide – ALWAYS.  This is not time to be creative.  Don’t agonize about why the guide tells you to do something, just do it!


Be consistent.  If the style guide says to use italics for the title of the book or journal (and Chicago does) use italics ALWAYS.


Don’t mix style guides.  Chicago and MLA cannot be used simultaneously in a paper.  Choose one and stick to it.


If you don’t know how to cite a particular source, look it up.  The style guide has thought of nearly every type of source.


Print off the citation of the source you consulted, when you consult it. Don’t say, “I’ll do it later,” or “I am not sure I want to use this source, I’ll go back to it if I do.”  Going back later without the citation is often impossible.